Looking Beyond the Moment: American Immigration Seen from Historically and Internationally Comparative Perspectives
Published on: Jul 28, 2006

Endnotes

1 Aristide Zolberg, A Nation by Design:  Immigration Policy in the Fashioning of America (Cambridge, MA:  Harvard University Press, 2006).

2 Richard Alba, “Mexican Americans and the American Dream,” Perspectives on Politics 4 (June, 2006):  289-96.

3 Leo Lucassen, The Immigrant Threat. The Integration of Old and New Migrants in Western Europe since 1850 (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 2005).  On Turks in Germany, see Necla Kelek’s Die Fremde Braut (Kiepenheuer & Witsch, 2005), written by a Turkish German.

4 Willem Maas, “The genesis of European rights,” Journal of Common Market Studies 43 (December, 2005):  1009-25.

5 See, for the case of Germany, the survey data reported in the appendix of Richard Alba, Peter Schmidt and Martina Wasmer, Germans or Foreigners?  Attitudes toward Ethnic Minorities in Post-Reunification Germany (New York:  Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), especially the social-distance items.

6 Specifically, freedom of mobility has been granted at this time to citizens of the 10 new EU members by Finland, Greece, Great Britain, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and Sweden.  According to the treaties signed when the eastern European countries joined, their citizens should have complete freedom of movement, including the rights to settle and work, throughout the EU space by 2011.  See Joanne von Selm and Eleni Tsolakis, “EU enlargement of the limits of freedom,” Migration Information Source (May 1, 2004):  http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?id=224.

7 Douglas Massey, Jorge Durand and Nolan Malone, Beyond Smoke and Mirrors:  Mexican Immigration in an Era of Economic Integration (New York:  Russell Sage Foundation, 2003). 

8 For the best estimates of the characteristics of the unauthorized, see Jeffrey Passel, “Size and characteristics of the unauthorized migrant population in the US: Estimates based on the March 2005 Current Population Survey,” Pew Hispanic Center (March, 2006):  http://pewhispanic.org/reports/report.php?ReportID=61.

9 Massey et al., Beyond Smoke and Mirrors.

10 See the population projections by CONAPO:  Consejo Nacional de Población,  “Proyecciones de la Población de México, 2000-2050”:  http://www.conapo.gob.mx.

11 Passel, “Size and characteristics of the unauthorized migrant population.”

12 For the latest demographic balance in Europe, see Rainer Münz, “Europe: Population and migration in 2005,” Migration Information Source (June 1, 2006):  http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=402.  See also Louka Katseli, “Immigrants and EU labor markets,” Migration Information Source (December 1, 2004):  http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=274

13 Specifically, the National Research Council report suggested that immigration brought an annual net positive gain to the US economy of about $10 billion in the late 1990s, a drop in the bucket of the total national economy;  see the National Research Council, The New Americans:  Economic, Demographic and Fiscal Effects of Immigration (Washington, DC:  National Academy Press, 1997).

14 AnnaLee Sanexian, “Silicon Valley’s new immigrant entrepreneurs,” CCIS, Working Paper 15 (May, 2000).

15 George Borjas, Heaven’s Door:  Immigration Policy and the American Economy (Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 1999).

16 For a critique of this aspect of Borjas’s claims, see Richard Alba, Amy Lutz, and Elena Vesselinov, "How enduring were the inequalities among European immigrant groups in the U.S.?" Demography 38 (August, 2001):  349-56.

17 On the difficulties faced by southern Italians and the analogy to Mexicans and other contemporary immigrants, see Joel Perlmann, Italians Then, Mexicans Now:  Immigrant Origins and Second-Generation Progress (New York:  Russell Sage Foundation, 2005);  and Nancy Foner, From Ellis Island to JFK:  New York’s Two Great Waves of Immigration (New Haven:  Yale University Press, 2000).  Also relevant is Nancy Foner and Richard Alba, “The second generation from the last great wave of immigration: Setting the record straight,” forthcoming at the Migration Information Source.

18 The data are from Richard Alba, “Diversity’s blind spot:  Catholic ethnics on the faculties of elite American universities,” forthcoming in Ethnicities, and from tabulations by Dr. Hui-shien Tsao of the Center for Social and Demographic Analysis of the University at Albany.

19 On the contingencies, see Richard Alba and Victor Nee, Remaking the American Mainstream:  Assimilation and Contemporary Immigration (Cambridge:  Harvard University Press, 2003); and Alejandro Portes and Rubén Rumbaut, Legacies:  The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation (Berkeley:  University of California Press, 2001).

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